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Complex and Advanced Angioplasty

All over the world, the most common and problematic heart disease at present is coronary artery disease which means blockages developing in the blood vessels of the heart. We all have three blood vessels that supply blood and nutrients to the heart muscle continuously so that the heart can perform its function efficiently. If there is an issue, it is recommended to get the complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai to lead a healthy lifestyle.

What is Advanced Angioplasty ?

Advanced angioplasty refers to the latest techniques and technologies used to improve the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a procedure to open blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. Key points include:
1. Drug-Eluting Stents (DES): These stents release medication to prevent restenosis (re-narrowing of the artery).
2. Bioabsorbable Stents: These stents dissolve over time, reducing long-term complications.
3. Rotational Atherectomy: A high-speed rotating device is used to break up calcified plaques in the artery.
4. Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS): An imaging technique to visualize the inside of blood vessels, ensuring precise stent placement.
5. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR): A measurement technique to assess the severity of artery blockages and guide treatment.
6. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A high-resolution imaging technique to examine artery walls and stent deployment.
7. Advanced Guide Catheters: Improved catheters for better navigation and support during the procedure.
8. Radial Access: Accessing arteries through the wrist, reducing recovery time and complications compared to traditional femoral access.

Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

Atherosclerosis is the disease process that causes the accumulation of cholesterol and inflammatory cells in the inner layer of blood vessels of the heart and brain leading to heart attack and stroke leading to advanced angioplasty treatment. This is due to either inadequate control of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity, or improper lifestyle-related factors like smoking, stress, obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep disorders, and unhealthy dietary habits.

Disease Progression and Symptoms

Our heart has a high degree of compensatory process so that symptoms like chest pain, and breathlessness do not develop until the blockages in the blood vessels reach more than 70% severity. In diabetics and older age people because of neuropathy symptoms develop only after the blockages reach 90% severity. When the blockages suddenly rupture (plaque rupture) the blood clots over the preexisting blockage and leads to 100% occlusion which is the reason for heart attack and requires immediate attention from the angioplasty specialist in Chennai. 

Importance of Early Diagnosis and Prevention

In order to diagnose the disease earlier we need to be proactive and undergo regular periodic health checkups including ECG, Echocardiogram, and Treadmill test (stress ECG). To prevent the disease from developing we need to lead a healthy lifestyle and if risk factors are present, we need to control them with medications appropriately or get the best complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai.

Complex And Advanced Angioplasty In Chennai | Dr. M. Kathiresan

Coronary Angiogram 

A coronary angiogram is a test to identify the blockages in the blood vessels of the heart, it takes 15-20 minutes usually for the test procedure and the patient has to stay in the hospital for a further 4 hours for observation. If the blockage is more than 70% medications will not work and we need the treatment procedure called complex coronary angioplasty (stent treatment). Angioplasty can be categorized as a straightforward or advanced procedure.

Read also: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement In Chennai

Angioplasty Procedures

Nearly 80% of the complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai are straightforward, which normally takes 45 minutes to 1 hour for the procedure and a total of 2-3 days stay in the hospital. Whereas in tertian patients the blockages are complex lesions that will require advanced expertise from interventional cardiologists, cath lab team, additional hardware, and intra-coronary imaging for a safe and durable procedure.

This type of complex lesion is present in post-bypass surgery patients, calcified lesions in old age, chronic total occlusion, bifurcation lesions, left main lesions, chronic kidney disease patients, and severe LV dysfunction patients.

Types of Angioplasty Procedures

Types of angioplasty procedures include:

  • Balloon Angioplasty: A balloon is inflated to open the blocked artery.
  • Stent Placement: A metal mesh tube (stent) is placed to keep the artery open.
  • Drug-Eluting Stent (DES): Stents that release medication to prevent re-narrowing.
  • Rotational Atherectomy: A high-speed rotating device is used to remove hard plaque.
  • Laser Angioplasty: A laser is used to vaporize plaque.
  • Cutting Balloon Angioplasty: A balloon with small blades that score the plaque before dilating.
  • Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) Angioplasty: Specialized techniques to open completely blocked arteries.
  • Bioabsorbable Stents: Stents that dissolve over time, minimizing long-term complications.

Considerations for Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

In chronic kidney disease patients, it is better to avoid injection of iodine contrast to visualize the coronary arteries during the complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai. In recent times we do ultra-low volume contrast angioplasty using IVUS techniques so that further kidney damage due to contrast is avoided.

In chronic total occlusion lesions, the blockage develops slowly and reaches 100% as a hard plaque. Since the lesion is total and hard, additional special CTO wires with hard tip load are needed to penetrate the lesion. Sometimes the wire is passed backward through small collateral vessels which is called retrograde technique to open the blood vessel blockages. 

In certain CTO patients, laser energy is utilized to penetrate the uncrossable lesions. In patients with heart attack and cardiogenic shock where the blood pressure is very low, high-risk complex angioplasty is performed after initiating Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) devices in the form of VA ECMO or IMPELLA pump device. This is also utilized in chronic severe LV dysfunction patients who need angioplasty procedures. 

Advantages of the Laser Angioplasty

  • Precision and Targeted Treatment: Laser angioplasty provides precise and targeted treatment, addressing complex arterial blockages with accuracy.
  • Minimally Invasive Approach: Being a minimally invasive procedure, complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai utilizing lasers reduces the need for extensive incisions, promoting quicker recovery.
  • Reduced Scarring: The use of lasers in angioplasty minimizes tissue damage, leading to reduced scarring and enhanced cosmetic outcomes.
  • Enhanced Success Rates: Laser angioplasty enhances success rates in treating complex vascular conditions, offering effective solutions for challenging cases.

Complex and Advanced Angioplasty in Chennai

When it comes to complex and advanced angioplasty procedures in Chennai, Dr. M. Kathiressan is a renowned expert. With a wealth of experience and cutting-edge technology at his disposal, he specializes in addressing intricate coronary artery conditions, including chronic total occlusions and complex blockages.

Dr. Kathiressan’s expertise ensures successful outcomes and improved quality of life for patients facing challenging cardiovascular issues. He is dedicated to providing personalized care and innovative solutions, making him a trusted choice for those seeking advanced angioplasty treatments in Chennai. When it comes to your heart health, trust in the skills and experience of Dr. M. Kathiressan.


Although all the procedures of complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai lead to additional costs they help to avoid bypass surgery for patients who are at higher risk for surgery. It should be emphasized that many patients will still need bypass surgery because of other medical reasons.

Read also: Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement In Chennai

Frequently Asked Questions

Complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai is typically performed by an interventional cardiologist. It involves accessing the blocked artery through a small incision in the wrist or groin. Using a catheter with a tiny balloon at its tip, best  cardiologist advances it to the blocked area and inflates the balloon to open up the narrowed artery. In some cases, additional devices like stents or orbital atherectomy treatment devices may be used.

The duration of a complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai can vary depending on the complexity of the blockage and individual patient factors. On average, the procedure can take anywhere from 30 minutes to a few hours. Factors that can affect the procedure duration include the number of blockages, the presence of calcification, or the need for additional interventions.

The recovery after complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai is usually relatively quick. Most patients can expect to stay in the hospital for a day or two for monitoring before being discharged. It is common to experience some soreness or bruising at the incision site. Patients are generally advised to avoid strenuous activities for a few days and follow their doctor’s instructions.

Complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai refers to a specialized cardiac procedure performed to treat severe or intricate coronary artery diseases. This advanced intervention involves skilled cardiologists using cutting-edge techniques and equipment to address complex blockages, multiple lesions, or challenging anatomical conditions in the heart’s blood vessels. The goal is to restore optimal blood flow, reduce the risk of heart attacks, and improve overall cardiac health for patients facing more intricate cardiovascular issues.

Complex and advanced angioplasty in Chennai refers to highly specialized procedures for treating complex coronary artery conditions. This includes severe blockages, multiple blockages, or challenging anatomical factors. Skilled interventional cardiologists utilize advanced techniques, such as rotational atherectomy, laser angioplasty, and the use of specialized stents, to successfully navigate and treat these intricate cases, ensuring optimal blood flow to the heart and improved cardiac health.

The cost of angioplasty in Chennai can vary depending on several factors, including the complexity of the procedure, the hospital’s reputation, and the patient’s specific medical needs. Complex and advanced angioplasty procedures, which may involve additional interventions or specialized equipment, can be relatively higher in cost. It’s advisable to consult with a healthcare provider or hospital in Chennai for a personalized estimate based on your medical condition.

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