Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai

Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai
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Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or PCI is a surgical treatment to open a blocked artery. Arteries are nothing but the blood vessels that aid in carrying oxygen-rich blood through your body. 

A patient may have to undergo a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai if he/she has a build-up of a fatty, waxy substance (plaque) in their arteries. On the other hand, some may require a PCI or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention procedure to clear blockages after a heart attack. The other name for a PCI is coronary angioplasty.

What is a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

A Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  (PCI) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that helps to open blocked coronary (heart) arteries in heart patients.  The Percutaneous Coronary Intervention procedure uses a small balloon to reopen a blocked artery in order to increase blood flow.

Usually, your interventional cardiologist will place a small, permanent tube (stent) keeping the artery open for a long term. The stent usually contains medication to release directly into the artery (drug-eluting stent) to reduce the re-narrowing risk within the stent during the Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai.

Who Can Have a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

A patient may require a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to remove build-ups of a thick, fatty substance or plaque from their arteries. Plaque usually builds up and hardens in the arteries (atherosclerosis).

This can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease blocking the blood flow through the heart. This, in turn, does not allow your heart to pump blood efficiently, and there can be a possibility of chest pain (angina).

Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai is also used by healthcare providers to treat heart attacks because it quickly opens blood vessels, and can help minimize heart damage.

Conditions Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS).
  • Chronic Total Occlusions (CTOs).
  • Restenosis.

Other coronary artery abnormalities, such as anomalous coronary arteries or spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD).

Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai | Dr. M. Kathiresan

Types of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 

  1. Trans Radial Interventions – It is a recommended technique of PCI associated with lower bleeding and vascular complications in acute coronary syndrome.
  2. CHIP Procedures – These types of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention provide temporary support to the heart to assist in moving blood through the body.
  3. Primary Angioplasty – It is a special case of direct or immediate angioplasty to restore the blood flow to the blocked artery.
  4. Post-Bypass Angioplasty – This Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai is performed one step higher than angioplasty by restoring the blood flow to more than one heart artery.
  5. Ultralow Contrast Angioplasty – These types of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention are performed on patients with advanced chronic kidney diseases engaging guide catheter and advanced guidewire in the coronary artery without using contrast.
  6. Bifurcation Stenting – It is a standard strategy of treatment that treats the narrowing of the major coronary artery and aids in helping the sufficient flow of blood to your heart.
  7. Left Main Stenting – This type of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention is a strong alternative for coronary artery bypass surgery in selected patients to aid in supplying blood to the left side of the heart muscle.
  8. Chronic Total Occlusions – This Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai treats the partial or complete blockage of the blood vessel and also increases the flow of oxygen-rich blood to downstream vital tissues like the brain, heart, or extremities.
  9. Metallic Stents Vs Bioresorbable Scaffolds – It is more effective in preventing restenosis in dissolving sutures and allows the artery to flex and pulse naturally. 
  10. Intracoronary Physiology – FFR, IFR, RFR – It provides a more precise assessment of the lesions to avoid unnecessary stenting. It is a key cornerstone of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai.
  11. Intracoronary Imaging – Intravascular ultrasound – This is used as a catheter-based diagnostic procedure to view the inside of a coronary artery to provide a real-time view of the target location.
  12. Rotational Atherectomy/ Rotablator – This Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai is performed as an endovascular procedure using forward advancement of a rotating abrasive burr to ablate atherosclerotic plaque.
  13. Complex and Advanced Angioplasty – It is an advanced Percutaneous Coronary Intervention procedure used to open blocked coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease and also aids in restoring blood flow to the heart muscle without any open-heart surgery. 

Treatment of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedure

Before the Procedure

The healthcare provider will give specific instructions to prepare for a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai. In a non-emergency situation, the patient will be asked not to eat or drink for several hours before the surgery.

If you are used to taking blood-thinning medications (anticoagulants), you should stop taking them temporarily because these medicines can increase bleeding risks during the surgical procedure. 

During the Procedure

An interventional cardiologist will usually perform the PCI. The patient will receive a sedative (anesthesia) to make them remain calm and relaxed. He/ she will be awake but can’t feel anything during the Percutaneous Coronary Intervention procedure.

During a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai, the cardiologist will:

  1. Insert a sheath (a small hollow tube) through a blood vessel in the patient’s arm or at the top of the thigh.
  2. This guides a small, hollow tube (catheter) through this sheath and to the heart.
  3. A contrast dye is injected and X-rays are used to view the catheter in real-time.
  4. It opens the blocked artery by inflating a balloon which is attached at the tip of the catheter.
  5. The interventional cardiologist will place a stent, if needed, to keep the artery open.
  6. Then, the catheter will be removed and the insertion site is closed with a compression bandage (arm), collagen plug (thigh), and a small stitch (thigh).

The Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai usually lasts between 30 minutes and two hours depending on several factors, including the extent of plaque build-up.

After the Procedure

The patient will have to stay in the recovery area for several hours after a PCI. They may have bruising or soreness where the doctor inserted the catheter but after observation, he/she will be asked to return home the same day or stay in the hospital overnight.

Benefits of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedure

The PCI can improve blood flow in the heart. Besides that, the Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai can reduce the symptoms of a blocked artery, such as chest pain and (dyspnoea) shortness of breath. The other benefits of PCI include:

  • Relieves Chest Pain: PCI can alleviate symptoms of chest pain, also known as angina, by improving blood flow to the heart.
  • Reduces Heart Damage: By opening blocked arteries and restoring blood flow, PCI can help prevent further damage to the heart muscle and reduce the risk of heart attack.
  • Improves Quality of Life: Patients who undergo successful PCI procedures often experience improved quality of life and greater physical activity levels.
  • Minimally Invasive: Compared to traditional open-heart surgery, PCI is a minimally invasive procedure that typically results in shorter hospital stays and faster recovery times.

Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedure

Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) is a procedure used to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart attack. While PPCI is a highly effective treatment for AMI, it is not without complications. We will discuss some of the complications of PPCI.

  • Bleeding: One of the most common complications of PPCI is bleeding. Bleeding can occur at the site of the catheter insertion, which is usually in the groin or the wrist. The risk of bleeding increases if the patient is taking blood-thinning medication, has a low blood platelet count, or if the procedure takes longer than usual.
  • Coronary Artery Dissection: In some cases, PPCI can cause a tear or dissection in the coronary artery. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can cause chest pain, heart attack, or even death.
  • Reperfusion Injury: Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention is designed to restore blood flow to the heart muscle, but this sudden restoration of blood flow can cause reperfusion injury. Reperfusion injury occurs when the heart muscle is damaged by the sudden increase in blood flow. This can lead to arrhythmias, heart failure, and even death.
  • Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: PPCI requires the use of contrast dye, which can be toxic to the kidneys. In some cases, the use of contrast dye can cause kidney damage or even kidney failure. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease or diabetes are at a higher risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy.
  • Stent Thrombosis: PPCI often involves the placement of a stent in the coronary artery to keep it open. In some cases, the stent can become blocked by a blood clot, a condition known as stent thrombosis. Stent thrombosis can cause chest pain, heart attack, or even death.
  • Allergic Reactions: Some patients may be allergic to the contrast dye used during PPCI. Allergic reactions can range from mild skin rash to life-threatening anaphylaxis.
  • Radiation Exposure: Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention involves the use of X-rays to guide the catheter to the heart. Patients and healthcare workers involved in the procedure are exposed to radiation, which can increase the risk of cancer and other health problems.

As a whole, this Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai is generally a safe procedure with a low risk of complications. When the health care providers perform a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai using a drug-eluting stent, the likelihood that the artery will close again can be less than 5%.

Recovery Time 

Usually, the patient who has undergone the Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai can resume their usual activities within a week. If you have a job requiring physical activity or heavy lifting, you ought to wait longer to return to work. During the recovery time, your cardiologist may prescribe blood-thinning medicines to lower the risk of blood clots.

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Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai

MK Heart Clinic in Chennai is considered the best hospital offering Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) for several reasons:

Expertise: The hospital is staffed with highly trained and experienced doctors, nurses, and technicians who are experts in the field of PPCI. They have years of experience and have successfully performed numerous procedures, making them well-equipped to handle even the most complex cases.

State-of-the-Art Facilities: MK Heart Clinic has state-of-the-art facilities and equipment, including a cardiac catheterization lab, advanced imaging technology, and specialized PPCI equipment. This enables the hospital to provide the highest quality of care to patients, ensuring accurate diagnoses and successful treatment.

24/7 Availability: MK Heart Clinic provides round-the-clock emergency services, which means that patients can receive timely treatment at any time of the day or night.

Patient-Centered Care: The hospital places a strong emphasis on patient-centered care, focusing on the individual needs and preferences of each patient. This approach ensures that patients receive personalized care and support throughout their treatment journey.

Positive Outcomes: MK Heart Clinic has a track record of positive outcomes, with high success rates for PPCI procedures. This has earned the hospital a reputation for excellence in the field of cardiology and has led to it being recognized as the best hospital for PPCI in Chennai.

Overall, the combination of expertise, state-of-the-art facilities, round-the-clock availability, patient-centered care, and positive outcomes make MK Heart Clinic the best hospital for Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) in Chennai.

The Outcome of Primary Percutaneous Coronary

The outcome of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) can vary depending on several factors, such as the patient’s age, overall health, the severity of the coronary artery blockage, and time to treatment. Generally, primary PCI is considered to be a highly effective treatment for acute coronary syndrome, and studies have shown that it can significantly reduce the risk of death, recurrent heart attacks, and other complications.

Immediate outcomes of primary PCI may include relief of chest pain, improved blood flow to the heart, and the prevention of further damage to the heart muscle. However, there may be some risks associated with the procedure, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the blood vessels or surrounding organs.

In the long term, the outcome of primary PCI can depend on various factors such as lifestyle changes, adherence to medication regimens, and ongoing medical care. Patients who receive primary PCI will typically need ongoing monitoring and follow-up care to ensure that their condition is well-managed and that they are taking appropriate steps to reduce their risk of future heart problems.

Percutaneous Valvuloplasty

Percutaneous valvuloplasty is a minimally invasive non-surgical procedure used to treat certain types of heart valve conditions. It is commonly performed to treat stenosis, a condition where a heart valve becomes narrowed, obstructing blood flow. This procedure of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in Chennai aims to improve the valve’s function and restore normal blood flow.

During percutaneous valvuloplasty, a catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted through a small incision, usually in the groin area, and guided to the affected heart valve. Once in position, the balloon is inflated, which widens the narrowed valve by stretching the valve leaflets or breaking calcium deposits. This helps to improve blood flow and relieve symptoms associated with valve stenosis.

Percutaneous valvuloplasty is often performed under local anesthesia, and the recovery time is generally shorter compared to open-heart surgery. However, its suitability depends on factors such as the specific valve involved, the severity of the condition, and individual patient factors.

While percutaneous valvuloplasty can provide significant relief for certain patients with valve stenosis, it is essential to consult with a qualified cardiologist or cardiac specialist to determine if this procedure is the most appropriate primary percutaneous coronary intervention in chennai for your specific heart valve condition.

Patient Guides

If you or a loved one are scheduled to undergo Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai, here are some patient guides to help you prepare for the procedure:

  • Talk to Your Healthcare Provider: Make sure you understand the risks and benefits of the procedure and discuss any concerns or questions you may have with your healthcare provider.
  • Bring Someone with You: You may need someone to drive you home after the procedure, so make sure to arrange for transportation beforehand.
  • Wear Comfortable Clothing: You will need to wear a hospital gown during the procedure, so wear comfortable clothing that is easy to remove and put back on.
  • Be Prepared for Anesthesia: You will be given local anesthesia and sedatives during the procedure, which can make you feel drowsy and relaxed. Be prepared to follow the healthcare provider’s instructions for the anesthesia administration.
  • Plan for Recovery Time: After the Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai, you will need to rest for a period of time and may need to stay in the hospital overnight. Make sure to plan for any necessary time off work or other activities.
  • Follow Pre and Post-Procedure Instructions: You will be given specific instructions for post-procedure care, including medication and activity restrictions. To ensure a prompt and effective recovery, it is essential to adhere to all instructions provided by your healthcare provider.


If you are in need to undergo Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Chennai, MK Heart Clinic can be the right choice because the cardiologists and surgeons here have vast experience in dealing with the most complicated coronary artery bypass surgery, besides all types of valvular heart diseases, pediatric and adult heart surgery, adult and pediatric heart transplantation with success rates comparable to the international standards. 

Read also: Best Cardiologists in Chennai.

Frequently Asked Questions

The success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty, depends on several factors, including the location and severity of the blockage, the patient’s overall health, and the type of procedure performed. On average, PCI has a success rate of 90-95%.

A cardiologist with specialized training in interventional cardiology performs percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Interventional cardiologists use medical imaging and other techniques to diagnose and treat heart and blood vessel problems.

The three main types of percutaneous coronary artery interventions are:

  1. Balloon angioplasty, which involves inflating a balloon catheter to widen a narrowed or blocked coronary artery.
  2. Stenting, which involves placing a small metal mesh tube to hold open the artery after angioplasty·
  3. Atherectomy, which involves using a rotating device or laser to remove plaque from the inside of the artery.